Home > Rhean Language > Suffixes


    Forming Nouns
    Forming Verbs
    Forming Adjectives
    Forming Adverbs

Rhean Suffixes
Rheava Timčiki

    The end of a Rhean word determines what part of speech it is. Every part of speech can be turned into another part of speech with some kind of suffix. These suffixes can even be stacked on one another, each change adding more meaning to the word. One such monster word is:


Which breaks down as:

it was like those repeated occasions in which (he) behaves like one who has been overly burdened with responsibility

The following are some of the many suffixes used in Rhean.

Forming Nouns
Menzin Sacer

Usually added to adjectives or even prepositions/local nouns. This gives a sense of "all that which is ..." or "the ... part".
lim 'near' --> limad 'vicinity, the near area'
šöl 'blue' --> šölad 'the blue part(s), the blue'
olga bešerad 'the white of the eye'

Usually suffixed to verb stems, this indicates a time when something is done. It usually  indicates a repeated or cyclical event, but a few of these words are things that happen once. All -ak verbs use -arvo and all -ek verbs use -ervo.
deštak 'leave, depart' --> deštarvo 'vacation'
tafak 'eat' --> tafarvo 'feast, celebratory meal'
dumrek 'give birth' --> dumrervo 'birth'

Added to nouns or adjectives, means "the state/condition of being" or even "the period of being".
druž 'friend' --> družba 'friendship'
ǩodo 'child' --> ǩodoba 'childhood'
olec 'old, elderly' --> olecba 'senior years, old age'

Similar to -nok/-nik in that it usually creates a "doer" noun. There is disagreement over what the difference is between the two: Some say that -čik creates inanimate doers like machines while -nok/-nik makes animate doers. The many exceptions to this include emirčik 'official, authority figure' and časnok 'clock'. Others say that -čik should be suffixed to nouns, and -nok/-nik to verbs. Exceptions to this include miliciarnok 'police officer' and zdečik 'heirloom (from zdedek). It is true that -čik is more likely to be suffixed to nouns, and that most -čik words are inanimate; however, this suffix is less productive and so -čik words can be learned as they are, ignoring the suffix. To coin a new word with -čik suggests either an inanimate, or a pejorative sense when used for a person.

-dad (variant: -adad)
Creates a noun meaning "the group of" or "the set of".
inim 'human' --> inimdad 'humanity, human race'
traf 'stair' --> trafadad 'staircase'
tar 'four' --> tardad 'quartet, foursome'

-nok/-nik (variants: -(a)rnok/-(e)rnik)
Usually creates a "doer" noun, but there are exceptions. Can be suffixed to verb stems or nouns. The rule for which form to use is that all -ak verbs take -nok and all -ek verbs take -nik. Whether or not the a/e of the verb stem is left in or dropped is in free variation: palbnok or palbanok from palbak 'to speak'. With nouns, however, this gets ugly. There is no rule to determine whether -nok or -nik is used: consider čanjarnik 'triangle' (from čan 'three' and jar ' side') versus tarjarnok 'rectangle'! Also, frequently an r appears for no apparent reason before the suffix.
güüjak 'serve, wait on' --> güüjanok 'waiter'
aǩotek 'hunt' --> aǩotnik 'hunter'
peš 'foot' --> pešarnok 'pedestrian'
čerek 'blood' --> čerkernik 'blood vessel, vein'

Suffixed to adjectives, this makes a noun of degree or amount.
noon 'large' --> noonosta 'size'
tažol 'heavy' --> tažlosta 'weight'

Usually suffixed to verbs in the infinitive, this creates a method or a way to do something.
zduak 'say' --> zduakrhot 'pronunciation'
unteǧak 'drive' --> unteǧakrhot 'how to drive'

Shows a place, usually a place where something is done.
naprak 'learn' --> naprukhaz 'school'
ftukek 'arrive' --> ftukukhaz 'destination'
ravowak 'work' --> ravowukhaz 'workplace'
warna 'war' --> warnukhaz 'battleground'
dioǩ 'drink' --> dioǩukhaz 'pub, tavern'

This suffix turns an adjective into a noun meaning "the ... one", "a ... thing". Because adjectives can be treated as nouns simply by taking a case ending, -urz is often unnecessary. You'll see it most often after the relative clause suffix -na, and after adjective-nouns in the nominative or unmarked accusative.
noon 'big' --> noonurz 'the big one'
pragi 'wise' --> pragiurz 'someone wise'
šiznimna '... that I know' --> šiznimnurz 'one that I know'

Various verbal noun suffixes: -ud, -ut, -o, -0 -ad, -ed, -uk
   While the infinitive can be used as a noun to mean something like "the act of ...", there is another set of verbal nouns which usually refer to one instance of a verb. The -ek verbs can take the endings -ud, -o, and a small few of the erzakstva verbs take -ed. The -ak verbs can take -ut, -0 (zero ending), and -ad. There are verbs of both classes that can take -uk if the verb ends in -uak or -uek. Unfortunately, which verb takes which noun suffix is not predictable by any rule.

zritek --> zritud 'crash'
dyefek 'act (feign)' --> dyefud 'act (pretense)'
dorek --> doro 'dance'
pšoktek --> pšokto 'step'
asmek 'permit' --> asmed 'permission'

basmak '(to) smile' --> basmut '(a) smile'
marbak 'pay' --> marbut '(a) payment'
pentak '(to) kick' --> pent '(a) kick'
haikak '(to) scratch' --> haik '(a) scratch'
raabak 'join, connect' --> raabad '(a) connection'

tremuak '(to) pause, hesitate' --> tremuk '(a) pause'
gazruek '(to) bet' --> gazruk '(a) bet, wager'

   A further complication is that all nouns formed by -ek --> -o belong to the -u class: doro, doroi, etc.

Forming Verbs
Jodonin Sacer

This 'suffix' is attached to adjectives, meaning "make" or "cause to be". The -ak is used unless the adjective ended in -i or -e, in which case the ending is -ek. Some examples:
melun 'slow' --> agmelunak 'slow down, hinder'
koši 'few' --> agkošek 'reduce, make fewer'
okien 'illegal' --> agokienak 'prohibit, forbid'
     Some nouns also take this suffix, making a verb that means "to give ..."
svab 'freedom' --> agsvabak 'release, acquit, set free'
konz 'end' --> agkonzak 'put a stop to, terminate'
     This form is also 'fossilised' in many words (not necessarily verbs) where the prefix has been reduced to g-. This is no longer a separate affix and cannot be removed:
gyelak 'freeze' < hyel 'ice'
gvurud 'medicine' < Old Rhean vur.z 'healed, sound'
gyokek 'obliterate' < iyok 'void, nothingness'

This can be added to nouns or adjectives. It means "act/behave (like) ..."
glüp 'stupid' --> glüpagarat "you're acting stupid"
derep 'pain' --> derpagaraiš "(he) showed signs of pain" (syncope in derep)
ikti 'adult' --> iktigaryaǩ! "act like adults!"

Adjectives can take this suffix to form verbs meaning "to be ..." This was explained here.

This suffix, still not officially recognised by many authorities on the Rhean language, is a reduction of the verb yurak ' to go'. It is attached to many adverbs of direction and motion prefixes to form all kinds of motion verbs:
waižak 'ascend'
citažak 'descend'
treǩižak 'return'
ucošžak 'separate'
retrožak 'go backwards'
ǩaužak 'go through'

Forming Adjectives
Garazinokin Sacer

Added to the names of places or cultures, it is like English "ish" or "ese" or "(i)an".
Tolborava 'Tolborese'
Republikava 'Republikese'
Osikava 'Ossican'
Rheava 'Rhean'

-baš, -blok
These both mean something like "full of ..." with -blok having a connotation of "packed full of" or "bursting with".
pukabaš drašeya 'an attic full of rats'
šulabaš dambro 'a basement full of water'
Eya doviiznik ǩurablok aše. "That real estate agent was full of shit."

This consists of a prefix biz- (from ORh bëz, which also gives us ModRh bez 'without') and the suffix - (see below). It means "without ..." or "-less"
konz 'end' --> bizkonzeč 'endless'
bikz 'effect' --> bizbikzeč 'ineffective, pointless'

-, -č
This forms adjectives from abstract nouns referring to qualities, meaning something has that quality:
gler 'safety' --> glereč 'safe'
irek 'anger' --> irekeč 'angry'
sekelz 'difficulty, fuss' --> sekelzeč 'difficult, troublesome'
   The alternate form -č is found after vowels:
mudin 'guilt' --> mudnič 'guilty' (syncope in mudin)
jenka 'hunger' --> jenkač 'hungry'

Usually suffixed to nouns, this shows that something has the quality of that noun, is made of that noun, or is powered by that noun. To see it also attached to verb stems or other parts of speech is not uncommon. While both -ni and -iksoi can be compared with English "-ic" or "-al", this suffix shows an inherent property while -ni (see below) shows an external relationship.
lekutare 'electricity' --> lekutariksoi 'electric'
auro 'gold --> auroksoi 'golden'
kino 'element, simplest thing' --> kinoksoi 'basic, simple'
ban- (masculine prefix) --> baniksoi 'male'
viǧa 'enemy' --> viǧaksoi 'hostile'
trizo 'anguish' --> trizoksoi 'anguished; (disparaging) overdramatic'
    Words ending in a k just add -soi:
kubik 'cube' --> kubiksoi 'cubic'
prakalk 'computer' --> prakalksoi 'computerised'
    A further reduction can be seen with mantiksa 'logic' --> mantiksoi 'logical'.

Like English "-able" or "-ible" -- maybe too much. A verb stem plus its "thematic" vowel (a or e) takes this ending to mean "which can have X done to it":
olamek 'drink' --> olamekar 'drinkable, potable'
glenak 'bend' --> glenakar 'bendable, flexible'
    A few intransitive verbs take this suffix, but these are exceptions:
ökruek 'happen' --> ökruekar 'possible'
    And a few verbs drop the thematic vowel:
tafak 'eat' --> tafkar 'edible'
erilak 'get rid of' --> erilkar 'despicable'

Suffixed to verbs just like -kar, this means "with a tendency to do..." or "characterised by doing..."
kudak 'give' --> kudakri 'generous'
blovak 'stay' --> blovakri 'stationary'
diženak 'move' --> diženakri 'active'
    Some nouns take this suffix, but this is rare:
vöst 'truth' --> vöstakri 'honest'

Added to any noun, this means "like".
ǩodo 'child' --> ǩodomik 'childlike'
Yadmik zbazud "a godlike presence"
    This is often found in adverb form, meaning "the way an X would do"
Orǩomikie tafa. "He eats like a pig."

This means "related to" or "involving". Like -(i)ksoi, it can be translated as "-ic" or "-al" but it refers to a noun's relation to some other thing and not an inherent property.
kiosta 'health' --> kiostani 'health-related, medical'
ǩörvad 'army' --> ǩörvadni 'military'
soiz 'nation, country' --> soizni 'national'

Means "looking like ..." or "resembling"
uytat 'statue' --> uytatmik 'statuesque'
čenovud otoǩ "a man who looks like a woman"

Forming Adverbs
Nunhernokin Sacer

Attached to nouns, usually time words, this means "all through X"
yum "day" --> yumǩu "all day"
žul "year" --> žulǩu "for a year"
dvaduk "concert" --> dvadukǩu "through the whole concert"

Suffixed to numbers, this means "... times" or "-fold"
adinyem, lakyem, storokyem, ülyadyem "once, twice, a hundred times, a hundred million times"

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