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Nouns with Prepositions
Nouns with Prepositions
With prepositions, the noun cases take on other meanings. Rhean cases do double-duty: all the cases except the nominative have a local function as well.
The nominative case is not used with many prepositions. There's
the seldom-used ku, explained in the
Another is the vocative particle a, which
is used when addressing someone. You use it with a name, a title, even the word
"you". When you call a person something, it takes this vocative
a Laharik Joras
a Vulo Napros
hey you guys!
In Rhean, titles like Banas 'Mr.', Joras 'Miss/Mrs./Ms.' Izuta 'doctor (medical)', Napros 'doctor (non-medical)' etc. go after the name and not before as in English. These can also be used as nouns on their own, but they are only capitalised when they follow a proper name. The name before the title is always in the nominative, while the title takes the case endings as needed.
When used with a preposition, the accusative case has a perlative sense, meaning something like "through" or "across" or "from one end/side to the other". Prepositions that take the accusative include išluz 'across', ǩau 'through', zde 'along the whole length of' (also 'for length of time'), and wai 'upwards on/along'.
Išluz hokšon anduaim.
across bridge-ACC walk-1PL:PAST
We walked across the bridge.
Vukro ǩau tumbron ǧečaiš.
ship through fog-ACC pass-3SG:PAST
The ship passed through the fog.
Zde ailuk yoguiom.
across lake(-ACC) swim-1SG:PAST
I swam across the (whole) lake.
Wai hoškez lizdiom.
up ladder(-ACC) climb-1SG:PAST
I climbed up the (whole) ladder.
The genitive case is used for ablative senses, meaning things like "from" or "out of". Some prepositions which use this case are kra 'from' and ez 'out of'.
Ez vadar miriš.
out-of window-GEN look-3SG
He is looking out the window.
Kra Ǩimska unteǧaim.
from Khimsk-GEN drive-1SG:PAST
I drove from Khimsk.
bez 'without' also uses the genitive:
Bez platvaka deštaiš!
without paying-GEN leave-3SG:PAST
He left without paying!
The dative case is used with prepositions for an illative* sense. It carries a sense of "to",
"towards", "into". Prepositions with the dative include i
'into', u 'to', nak
'towards', nar 'right up to, until', and ver
'for the purpose of'.
* or allative
Kina i mačiku yuraiz.
yesterday into town-DAT go-3PL:PAST
They went into town yesterday.
U narzu yuraimu.
to pub-DAT go-1PL:PAST
We went to the pub.
Ǩamyon nak gazübu luroka...
truck towards cliff-DAT roll-3SG
The truck's rolling towards the cliff...
Kra usar nak somuibat ravowaš.
from morning-GEN until evening-DAT work-3SG
He works from morning until evening.
Ver Kizit tiler ekiram.
for Kizi-DAT letter(-ACC) write-1SG
I am writing a letter to Kizi.
Many prepositions use this case; in fact, there are only a few uses for the instrumental without a preposition. The instrumental sense shows the means of doing something; "by, using, via, by means of, with" are ways to translate this in English. This sense is usually expressed by the preposition nap.
Todu nap telovukrom kuraim.
here-DAT by airship-INST came-1SG:PAST
I came here by airship.
Myol nap yačonom olamaiš.
beer(-ACC) by glass-INST drink-3SG:PAST
He drank the beer from a glass.
żČu nap olgavitrem liibat?
QU by glasses-INST read-2SG
Do you read with glasses?
Also included in this sense is so 'with, accompanied by':
So kaim yurirma.
with wife-INST go-1SG:FUT
I'll go with my wife.
The most common use of the instrumental is with locative senses, meaning something is located or happens "at", "in", "near", "next to", "behind" etc. Among the many prepositions which take the instrumental case are i 'in', u 'at', lim 'near', fes 'under'.
I kuduzom tača.
in exit-INST stand-3SG
He is standing in the exit.
U ekzim beklirmi.
at station-INST wait-1SG:FUT
I'll wait at the station.
Er lim yai draazom če.
that near my house-INST be:3SG
That's near my house.
Urha Šuz fes toya cerkvam ǧömmibza.
Urha king under this temple-INST bury-PASS
King Urha is buried under this temple.
You may have noticed that i means both 'into' and 'in', and u was both 'to' and 'at'. This is because prepositions can mean different things when used with different cases. For example, most locative prepositions can take the dative to add the illative sense:
|ot bocom||on the table|
|ot bocu||onto the table|
|i šulam||in the water|
into the water
|gom tibadom||above the city|
|gom tibadu||to somewhere above the city|
Prepositions which more often take another case can be used with the accusative to add the perlative sense. For example gom 'above, over' with the instrumental means something which is situated above some other thing, while the same gom with the accusative would be used if something passed over that thing.
Telovukre gom tibad žööraz.
airships over city(-ACC) fly-3PL
Airships fly over the city.
Ürok fes barz godioš.
dog under fence-ACC dig-3SG:PAST
The dog dug under the fence.
An odd one of these is so, which with the instrumental means 'with, accompanied by', but with the dative means 'after' in the sense of "chase after".
FULL SUMMARY OF CASES
Here is another summary of the case forms including all the prepositional uses explained above:
nominative (suffix -) : subject; vocative; rare genitive
accusative (suffix - / -n) : object; perlative "through", "along", "across"
genitive (suffix -a / -r) : possessive "-'s", "of "; ablative "from", "out of"
dative (suffix -u / -t) : recipient "to", "for"; illative "to", "towards", "into"
instrumental (suffix -om / -m) : method "with", "by", "using..."; locative "at", "near", "in"
Prepositions can be used on other prepositions! Many Rhean prepositions can be local nouns, and take case endings like any other noun. Usually, this is used to combine two or more prepositions. The noun which follows the whole group of prepositions will take the genitive case, as if to say "PREP the PREP of-the-NOUN"
in front of the store
kra maira micena
from in front of the store
nak mairu micena
towards the front of the store
lim mairom micena
near the front of the store
under the ground
ez fesa zema
out from under the ground
u fesu zema (fes zemu)
down to somewhere under the ground
bilmeš fesom zema
throughout the area under the ground
Local nouns are also often formed with a suffix -ad which means 'all of that which is ...' or 'the totality of ...'. This makes words like mairad 'front', poǩad 'underside', (from poǩ 'on the bottom of'), timead 'rear', limad 'vicinity'.
Some prepositions are used as nouns in the instrumental:
|time (+INST)||behind (sthg.)||timem||in back|
|yel (+INST)||before (sthg.)||yelom||beforehand|
|sonra (+INST)||after (sthg.)||sonram||afterward, later|
|wai (+INST)||up (sthg.)||waiyem*||upward|
* irregular form
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