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Verb Prefixes
Jodonni Yelnikiti


Here are some prefixes that can be attached to Rhean verbs.

This prefix forms a reflexive verb, like "do to oneself":
nietek 'wash' --> čavonietek 'wash oneself' (ie bathe)
'they kill' --> čavokrošaz 'they kill themselves'

forms an "undo" verb:
fikrek 'put on, get dressed' --> danfikrek 'undress'
tenak 'hold on, grasp' --> dantenak ' release, let go'

This is one of the "motion classifier" prefixes. It adds a meaning of "away" to the verb:
hažak 'run' --> dlohažak 'run away'
maǩak 'drop, let fall' --> dlomaǩak 'throw out, discard'

Another motion classifier, this one means "into". It is related to the preposition i.
tobvek 'jump' --> iktobvek 'dive, jump in'
There is a variant iz- found before k and g sounds:
kodek 'put, place' --> izkodek 'install, put in'

This one is similar to čavo- in that verbs using it can often be translated "... himself/herself/etc." It is mostly used to form the middle voice, which in Rhean is often a lot like the passive.
brazak 'cook (sthg.)' --> jibrazak 'cook(self), be cooked'
nurjek 'topple, knock over' --> jinurjek 'fall over, collapse'
bevak 'shake (sthg.)' --> jibevak 'shake (self/independently)'
You could say that the difference is that čavo- suggests deliberate action or a living agent, while ji- is something happening on its own or helplessly. This is complicated, though, by the fact that ji- is taking over for čavo- in many places:
magrek 'turn' --> jimagrek 'turn self around'
A very common use of ji- is to say how something lends itself to being done:

Gez šaasie jifugriš.
gate easy-ADV MID-open-3SG
    The gate opens easily/is easy to open.

Noon afto sekelzečyanie jiunteǧa.
big car difficult-COMP-ADV MID-drive-3SG
    A big car is harder to drive.

This one is usually used with participles, especially the passive (and a lot of adjectives too). It's a simple negative.
palbar 'speaking' --> mipalbar 'unspeaking'
krakibza 'broken' --> mikrakibza 'unbroken'

means "do completely". It can often be rendered in English by "up".
lasak 'cut (once)' --> omrolasak 'cut up, cut to pieces'
a ǩrak 'burn' --> omroa ǩrak 'burn up, burn totally'

nai-, naihok-
A motion classifier meaning "come together".
olamak 'drink' --> naihokolamak 'meet for drinks'
sarivnek 'compete' --> naihoksarivnervo 'tournament'
The variant nai- is not as productive, and is found mostly in nouns, like naidül 'fire pit', naiošir 'lecture', and a few verbs like naičaurak 'confront'.

Instead of using the causative construction to say "make ... do", intransitive verbs can take this prefix and become transitive.
bakčak 'sink' --> probakčak 'sink sthg'
ǩpolzak 'heal, get better' --> proǩpolzak 'make heal, treat back to health'

is a motion classifier meaning "spread out".
krivak 'cover' --> raskrivak 'spread out to cover'
maǧlak 'defeat' --> rasmaǧlak 'conquer, conquest'

This one rather transparently means "backwards, in reverse"
zilzak 'slip' --> retrozilzak 'slide/slip backwards'
ošek 'push' --> retroošek 'push pack'

a rather odd motion classifier meaning "inward from all sides"
kaadak 'block off' --> rotokaadak 'siege'
geček 'squeeze' --> rotogeček 'constrict'

This is simply the adjective/adverb skij stuck to the verb. It means "too much" or "overdo".
tafak 'eat' --> skijtafak 'overeat'
brazak 'cook' --> skijbrazak 'overcook'

means "mutually" or "each other". There is also an adverb taǧyem which means the same thing.
ekirak 'write' --> taǧiekirak 'write to each other, correspond'
streček 'meet' --> taǧistreček 'meet each other'

is another motion classifier, meaning "apart" or "seperate":
kaečak 'fall' --> ucoškaečak 'fall in two pieces, split in half'
kričak 'decide' --> ucoškričak 'decide differently, come to opposite conclusions'

means "do in turn" or "do as one iteration in a series".
palbak 'speak' --> vepalbak 'speak in turn'
cinak 'hand over, give' --> vecinak 'pass off, pass to next person (as in relay etc)'

is ve- on top of ve- and has come to mean "do again and again".
radak 'tell' --> veveradak 'tell over and over'
dövmek 'hit' --> vevedövmek 'hit repeatedly'

Is like veve- but means to do over once, often suggesting something involved that has to be done "all over again".
ǧaduek 'build' --> zaiǧaduek 'rebuild'
naprak 'learn' --> zainaprak 'learn again'

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