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Adjectives and Adverbs
Garazinoki ki Nunhernoki

    Possessive Adjectives
Adverbs that Modify Adverbs
        Comparative and Superlative
        Comparative Structure
        Equative Structure
    Used as Nouns
    Postposed "Adverbs"


    Rhean adjectives like noon 'big', midir 'green', cumez 'cold' come before the noun they modify, and do not take any ending when used this way:

noon draaz
    a big house
midir afte
    green cars
cumez šula
    cold water
föz glüp pöki
    young stupid people

    The prefix an- added to an adjective makes it mean "very...". Fina, vadin, šöl, 'bad', 'smart', blue', become anfina, anvadin, anšöl, 'very bad', 'very smart', and 'very blue'. Another way to do this is with the suffix -ai: vadinai, finai. Sometimes this is combined with an- for double emphasis: anhuyuzai. Yet another way to say this is to use daǧie "very": daǧie vadin. An adjective does not take declension endings when modifying a noun, but it does when used on its own as a noun (see here).

Possessive Adjectives
Dovruni Garazinoki

As mentioned in the section on pronouns, each pronoun also has a possessive form. These correspond to the English my, (thy,) his, her, its, our, your, their. These are:

yai my yei our
lai your (sg. "thy") lei your (pl.)
tai his/her/its tei their

These are used just like adjectives before a noun:

yai pioz
    my apartment
lai bazuka
    your bazooka

These can take the gender prefixes too:

bantai his
jortei their (fem.)


Adjectives become adverbs by taking an ending. The ending -em replaces -i when it occurs at the end of adjectives. If this -i follows a vowel, the adverb ending is -yem. All other adjectives (except aya) add -ie to form adverbs.

melun slow
melunie slowly
melunie anduak to walk slowly
rasni serious
rasnem seriously
rasnem palbak to speak seriously
somui late (adj)
somuyem late (adv)
somuyem ftukek to arrive late

One irregular exception: the adverb form of aya "good" is ajie or aye "well".

Kaz anajie dvaduiš.
kaz(-ACC) very-well play-3SG
    He plays the kaz (a Rhean stringed instrument) very well.

There are other adverbs not formed from adjectives, like viom 'already', wastat 'completely', cita 'downwards'. Nouns related to time, like pilonk 'today', umaš '(in the) future', yelšemanz 'last week', are also often left unmarked and treated as adverbs.

Nunhernokin Jitrizna Nunhernoki

    Adverbs can modify other adverbs. When used this way, they usually take no adverb ending and look like their adjective form.

Huyuzie tafaim.
fast-ADV eat-1SG:PAST
    I ate quickly.
Skijie tafaim.
too-much-ADV eat-1SG:PAST
    I ate too much
Skij huyuzie tafaim.
too-much fast-ADV eat-1SG:PAST
    I ate too fast.

Eya otoǩ hila vurhusie palbaš.
that man ridiculous fast-ADV speak-3SG
    That man speaks ridiculously fast.


Gomostnok ki Suzostnok

There are suffixes for -er and -est as in English, and these can be added to any adjective:

vuneč old čevez expensive
vunečyan older čevezyan more expensive
vunečtaš oldest čeveztaš most expensive

There is also a way to say "little", "less", and "least" using the adverb haz which means "little, not very much".

šaut tall vurhus loud
haz šaut not very tall haz vurhus not very loud
hazyan šaut less tall hazyan vurhus less loud
haztaš šaut least tall haztaš vurhus least loud

These forms can also become adverbs:

huyuzie hažam
    I run fast
huyuzyanie hažat
    you run faster
huyuztašie haža
    he/she runs fastest

Gomostni Hatiko

Comparison is expressed with a preposition dla "(more) than" and the comparative form. The construction is different from English -- in Rhean, the comparison comes first, and the adjective comes after it.

dla heliko noonyan
THAN helicopter big-COMP
    bigger than a helicopter

Eya tizmuǩ dla heliko noonyan če!
that mosquito THAN helicopter big-COMP be-3SG
    That mosquito is bigger than a helicopter!

This of course leaves the adjective at the end, so the whole phrase can go in front of a noun to modify it:

Dla heliko noonyan tizmuǩ mirim.
THAN helicopter big-COMP mosquito(-ACC) see-1SG
    I see a mosquito (that is) bigger than a helicopter.

While dla takes the nominative case here, it can take other cases too. Compare these two sentences:

Warnan dla Toman ǧasie ǧalaš.
war-ACC THAN Toma-ACC more-ADV hate-3SG
    He hates war more than Toma. (= more than he hates Toma)
Warnan dla Toma ǧasie ǧalaš.
war-ACC THAN Toma-ACC more-ADV hate-3SG
He hates war more than Toma. (= more than Toma hates war)

And also:

Nap telovukrom dla nap lekužadom kurak huyuzyan.
by airship-INST THAN by train-INST come-INF quick-COMP
    (It is) quicker to come by airship than by train.

Datubani Hatiko

To compare things that are the same degree, or to say that one thing is not the same degree as another, you can use nubie or yud. The adverb nubie is one of the correlative words and means 'to the extent/degree which...' or 'as much as...'. Nubie is "correctly" only used to refer to verbs ("as much as" one does X), but is often used where yud should be. The preposition yud means pretty much the same thing as nubie but refers only to nouns ("as much as" X is/does something).

Nubie auror datu tažlosta čevez če.
as-much-as gold-GEN same weight expensive be-3SG
    It is as expensive as the same weight in gold.
yud stuub balda
as-much-as steel strong
    strong as steel

Jaa, yud heliko noon deǧe.
"jaa", as-much-as helicopter big not-be-3SG
    Aww, it's not as big as a helicopter.
Toman nubie Kizin mu kunim.
Toma-ACC as-much-as Kizi-ACC NEG like-1SG
    I don't like Toma as much as (I like) Kizi.

Adjectives Used as Nouns
Šid Menzit Mašabza Garazinoki

There is a suffix -urz which turns any adjective into a noun meaning 'a ... one' or 'the one that is ...' but this is not necessary. An adjective on its own can be a noun; any adjective with a plural or case ending on it will be understood as a noun.

Oleci todom ivriz.
old-PL here-INST live-3PL
    Old (people) live here.

Šinivin danǧömmiomu.
dead-PL-ACC unbury-1PL:PAST
    We dug up the dead (ones).

Lük ftakye ve.
onion(-ACC) fetch-2SG:IMP "EH"
Fetch (me) an onion.
żO firfan?
OBJ purple-ACC
    A purple one?
Mai, o bešer kraza.
no , OBJ white(-ACC) please
    No, a white one please.

Postposed "Adverbs"
Timekodeč "Nunhernoki"

    There are a few words that come after the word they modify, like postpositions, but I am including them with the adverbs. These include bile "even", zar "only", egva "except",  ški "also". They do not affect the case of the noun.

Loz egva paikure edom aše že!
you except everyone there-INST be-3SG:PAST EMPH
    Everyone was there except you!
żAi Jeram bile?
SUBJ Jeram even
    Even Jeram (was there / did it / etc)?

Šurken ški vendimu.
bullets-ACC also sell-1PL
    We also sell bullets.

    These postposed adverbs can even be used on verbs.

Tirzaim zar.
watch-1PL:PAST only
    We only watched.
De že. Böraiǩ ški.
no EMPH . fight-2PL:PAST also
    No. You also fought.

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